How are geopolitical shifts influencing peace and stability?

This module explores factors that contribute to geopolitical peace and stability. The role of geography in politics can provide insight to past and current events around the world.  The relationships that states maintain with one another are often the products of overlapping interests that may be determined by political boundaries (e.g., the established territory of a specific country), access to natural resources (e.g., water, oil, arable land.), ethnic or social norms, or a combination of these factors.  For example, political boundaries may shift as a result of social fragmentation within a country or external players may become involved to protect economic interests outside of their home region.  Oftentimes, patterns of peace and stability are directly related to the spatial configuration of people and places.  The advantage of a geographic scientist is to understand the mutual influence of people and environment and how these relationships change over space and time .

Cold War is the name given to the period of intense conflict primarily between the United States (part of Western World) and the Soviet Union (part of Communist World) in the period after World War II

States are a distinct set of political institutions whose specific concern is with the organization of domination, in the name of the common interest, within a delimited territory

Lashkar-e-Taiba is a South Asian militant organization that seeks to promote the Islamization of the region and to contest Indian authority over the Muslims of Kashmir

Mercy Corps is an extra-state nonprofit organization with headquarters in the United States and Europe that seeks to combat poverty, suffering, and oppression through community action projects

The European Union is the most far-reaching supra-state integration initiative in the world, encompassing 27 European countries

Sovereignty is the claim to be the ultimate political authority, subject to no higher power as regards the making and enforcing of political decisions

Paradigm shift is a radically altered change in a fundamental model or perception of events

Ideologies are any comprehensive and mutually consistent set of ideas by which a social group makes sense of the world

Spatially configured-designed, arranged or shaped with regards to limitations in space

Ethnic is a group of people sharing a common and distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural heritage

Collective interests are a group of entities on which the relations are organized to pursue at least one common issue

Extra-state is a non-state actor outside the territory of the state

Supra-state is a state which governs other states

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