This module focuses on global inequality as a result of economic globalization. We live in an unequal world where inequality exists between countries and within countries. Needs such as shelter, land, food and clean water, sustainable livelihoods, technology, and information are not equally distributed at the international or national scales. Globalization, the flow and exchange across scales of international, national, and local boundaries, is redefining the patterns of inequality worldwide. Due to global participation, a country no longer has full control over the flow of goods, people, ideas, finances, to name a few. Rather, the control of the global economy falls on world cities.
Who benefits from economic globalization? The corporate world and their global clients have benefited. Who loses from economic globalization? People who are not integrated in the networks because of a lack of educational and technological development suffer isolation.
Exclusion from technology reinforces regional disconnection, urban segregation and rural seclusion. Technology and specifically Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have brought about development for those who are capable of integrating complex networks of informational flows. Thus, the global economy is driven by technological advances (e.g., computer hardware and software, biomedical, food and genetically altered foods etc). Development in these areas translates into economic wealth for a country.
Mega-city within several extensive and intensive networks of contemporary inter-city connections
It is a technological organization to connect computers and laboratories to use data and information by scientists, professionals, scholars, and citizens and work cooperatively to establish long term collaboration
All the uses of digital technology that allow storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission, and reception of digital data by individual, organizations, and communities
A structure of individuals or organizations defined as nodes which are connected by edges or links to operate in order to fulfill a social objective. The basic condition of this type of network is to share information
A structure of scientist and professionals defined as nods which are connected by edges or links to operate in order to fulfill a scientific objective. The basic condition of this type of network is to share information and produce new knowledge
The gap between those individuals and communities that have partial or total disconnection from the information communication technologies developed over the Internet. It is reduced to each individual access to the WWW. Education, infrastructure, and cost were the main factors to get access in the early days of the Internet. More recently, the digital divide might be widening because it depends on access to better bandwidth and increasingly on subscriptions. This separation might introduce a second digital divide or Digital Divide 2.0. Still, education, infrastructure and cost are the three main factors
A complex economic organization with large investment in foreign countries. Headquarter is difficult to identify because global management is executed from different locations according to its investments and operations
Organism in which the genetic structure (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. The methods used to alter DNA create GMOs such as altered plants which are then used to grow GM food crops
A city with an important role in the global economy. Examples include New York City, London, Tokyo.
The development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets
A large urban site recognized as a center of economic and political power exerted over a large number of cities and towns which are globally connected