“The geographical distribution of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity and ecosystem loss and regions where conservation efforts should focus are not evenly distributed but display distinct spatial patterning at all scales from local to global. (Brooks et al., 2006: Kremen et al., 2008) Species richness decreases from the equator poleward. Within this general pattern, certain geographical areas have notably high numbers of species, many found nowhere else in the world. These areas of high endemic species richness are referred to as biodiversity hotspots and are often regions prone to significant ongoing ecosystem alteration and loss.
Through field studies, remote sensing, and ecological modeling, the geographical sciences document and explain biodiversity distribution and contribute to its preservation through strategies aimed at optimizing conservation. (NRC 2010, p.32)