Credits

The Geographic Advantage: An AAG Companion Website for Understanding the Changing Planet was developed with the support of the Association of American Geographers. The project is designed to support the National Research Council's report, Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences (NRC 2010). This report outlines future directions in the geographical sciences and geographic investigation questions that will guide future research efforts. The AAG committee for the Geography Education Materials Development Fund supported the development of this companion website to engage youth in geographic investigations in the future strategic areas of the geographical sciences. The AAG Geography Education Materials Development Fund committee is chaired by Dr. Sarah Bednarz, and includes Dr. Ken Foote, Dr. Robert Morrill, and Dr. Joseph Stoltman. Assistance from Dr. Susan Hanson and Dr. Alec Murphy guided the authoring teams understanding of the research questions. Material from the Understanding the Changing Planet Executive Summary is used in the site with permission.

The project was conceptualized and organized by Dr. Michael Solem, Director of Educational Affairs at the AAG. Dr. Susan Gallagher Heffron, Senior Project Manager for Geography Education at the AAG, directed the content and website development. 

Project Directors

  • Michael Solem, Director of Educational Affairs, Association of American GeographersDr. Michael Solem is Educational Affairs Director for the Association of American Geographers.  Dr. Solem currently directs the Enhancing Departments and Graduate Education in Geography (EDGE) project and the Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) initiative, both funded by NSF. He currently serves as the North American coordinator of the International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography in Higher Education (INLT), is associate director of the Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education at Texas State University–San Marcos, and is Treasurer for the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education.
  • Susan Gallagher Heffron, Senior Project Manager for Geography Education, Association of American GeographersDr. Susan Heffron directs and facilitates AAG geography education projects for K-16 education with a special interest in K-12 teachers and learners.  Her work includes facilitating the dissemination of research to inform classroom and online instructional strategies as well as effective teacher professional development experiences. A veteran educator, she taught at the middle and high school levels as well as in higher education prior to her position at the AAG. Over the last 20 years, Heffron has served as workshop faculty for teacher professional development workshops at state, national, and international levels.

Authors

  • Barbaree Ash Duke, Education Consultant Barbaree is a veteran classroom teacher and an educational consultant in Curriculum Integration and GIS in Education based in Covington, LA. She taught English Language Arts in grades 6-12 as well as a technology and GIS electives. Barbaree taught for 15 years in Texas, Alabama and North Carolina, integrating GIS into her classroom since 2000. Annually you can see her presenting at GIS, technology and education conferences, teaching professional development and writing curriculum for K-12 classrooms. Her hands-on, realistic approach to education gives teachers and students a comfortable place to learn while offering fresh, practical ideas to improve the classroom environment.
  • Tzee-Kiu Edwin Chow, Assistant Professor of Geography, Texas State University – San Marcos Edwin obtained his graduate degrees in Geography (M.S. and Ph.D.) from the University of South Carolina. Upon graduation, he joined the Earth and Resource Science faculty at University of Michigan – Flint from 2005 – 2009. He teaches all levels of GIS and quantitative methods at Texas State University – San Marcos. His research interests include scale, environmental modelling, Lidar and Internet GIS. His recent research projects focus on environmental modeling of urban system and web demographics. The profile picture was taken in Hong Kong, where he grew up before coming to the US.
  • Niem Huynh, Senior Researcher, Association of American Geographers Niem grew up in Toronto (Canada) and finished her graduate degrees at Wilfrid Laurier University (Waterloo, Ontario). She taught high school science and biology for one year in Toronto prior to becoming an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography at Texas State University – San Marcos. She joined AAG in June 2011 and is part of a team working on a Road map project to improve geography education in the coming decade. Her research interests include Geography and GIS education.
  • Jennifer Jensen, Assistant Professor, Texas State University-San Marcos Jennifer Jensen is an assistant professor at Texas State University-San Marcos.  She teaches remote sensing and biogeography courses in the Department of Geography.  She holds an M.S. in Geography and Ph.D. in Environmental Science from the University of Idaho.  Her current research focuses on land cover land use change and human impacts on terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Osvaldo Muniz-Solari, Professor of Geography, Texas State University – San MarcosOsvaldo holds a MA in Geography from Michigan State University-East Lansing, and Ph.D. in Geography, The University of Tennessee-Knoxville. He serves as the Associate Director of the Gilbert M. Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education. His initial academic preparation was in Pedagogy in Geography, History and Civic Education at the University of the North in Antofagasta, Chile. As a professional geographer he has developed international consultant work in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile. His research interests in geography education are related to Online Learning Methods, New Technologies for Global Collaboration, Inquiry-based Learning, Problem-based Learning and Informal Education.

  • Anita Palmer, GISetc: Educational Technology ConsultantsAnita taught middle and high school technology and social studies.  She has authored and taught over one hundred technology institutes and classes for K-12 teachers focusing on integration of GIS technologies throughout the curriculum both in the USA and in the international arena over the past ten years. Mrs. Palmer is co-author of the original “Mapping Our World: GIS Lessons for Educators”, the community based ”Community Geography: GIS in Action!” Teacher’s Guide, the newly released Our World “Mapping Our World” and “Analyzing Our World” as well as the first GPS activity book “Going Places with GPS.” 
  • Roger Palmer, GISetc: Educational Technology ConsultantsRoger taught high school chemistry, physics, environmental and field science and is currently teaching and developing curriculum for the Texas Earth System Science course.  He has been involved with NASA initiatives using remote sensed imagery to teach math, science, and geography to K-12 students. Mr. Palmer has conducted GIS institutes for teachers and GIS/science camps for students in the USA and in the international arena for the past ten years. He is the co-author of the newly released “Mapping Our World” and “Analyzing Our World” as well as the first GPS activity book “Going Places with GPS.” 

Credits and References

  • All data and maps in this lesson are to be used for educational purposes only. It is not to be used for research purposes.

    List of Plant and Animal distributions:

    IUCN Red List of Total # of threatened mammals http://www.iucnredlist.org/images/mammals/maps/gma_threatened_species_without_legend_with_countries_440x232.jpg

    IUCN Red List  of Mammal Diversity http://www.iucnredlist.org/images/mammals/maps/gma_all_species_without_legend_with_countries_440x229.jpg

    IUCN Red List of Total # of threatened Mammals http://i.iucnredlist.org/images/spatial-data/Mammal.jpg

    IUCN Red List  of Amphibian Diversity http://www.iucnredlist.org/images/amphibians/maps/gaa_all_species_with_legend_540x286.jpg

    IUCN Red List of Total # of threatened Amphibeans http://www.iucnredlist.org/images/amphibians/maps/gaa_threatened_species_with_legend_540x281.jpg

    IUCN Red List of  Amphibean endemism http://www.iucnredlist.org/images/amphibians/maps/gaa_endemic_areas_540x286.jpg

    IUCN Red List of Total # of threatened Coral species http://i.iucnredlist.org/images/spatial-data/Coral.jpg

    IUCN Red List of Total # of threatened Bird species http://i.iucnredlist.org/images/spatial-data/Bird.jpg

    Conservation International's   Biodiversity Hotspots http://specieslist.com/images/external/ci-hotspots.jpg

    Imperial College assessment of Total Threatened Lizard species http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/pls/portallive/docs/1/66705703.JPG

    Bird total species density and Threatened Species Density
    http://www.bioone.org/na101/home/literatum/publisher/bioone/journals/content/bisi/2004/00063568-54.12/0006-3568%282004%29054%5B1081%3Acpbtgp%5D2.0.co%3B2/production/images/medium/i0006-3568-54-12-1081-f02.jpg
     

    Mammal total species richness and threatened mammal species richness maps
    http://www.bioone.org/na101/home/literatum/publisher/bioone/journals/content/bisi/2004/00063568-54.12/0006-3568%282004%29054%5B1081%3Acpbtgp%5D2.0.co%3B2/production/images/medium/i0006-3568-54-12-1081-f03.jpg

    Amphibian total species richness and threatened amphibian species richness
    http://www.bioone.org/na101/home/literatum/publisher/bioone/journals/content/bisi/2004/00063568-54.12/0006-3568%282004%29054%5B1081%3Acpbtgp%5D2.0.co%3B2/production/images/medium/i0006-3568-54-12-1081-f04.jpg

    Authors: B. Duke, A. Palmer & R. Palmer

  • All data and maps in this lesson are to be used for educational purposes only. It is not to be used for research purposes.

    Schistosomiasis

    Thank you to Renato L. Cerdeña, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Geography Section, Social Sciences Dept., Ferris State University, 820 Campus Drive ASC 2108, Big Rapids, MI 49307-2225, USA for his generous provision of the data used in this lesson. Renato_Cerdena@ferris.edu.

    Cholera

    This data was aggregated from:

    Johnson, Steven. The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic–and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World, Riverhead Books, 2006 (30-31)
    UCLA Department of Epidemiology website. http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html. Referred to March 18, 2011
    Diabetes

    This data was aggregated from the Esri ArcGIS Online website.

    Authors: B. Duke, A. Palmer & R. Palmer

  • All data and maps in this lesson are to be used for educational purposes only. It is not to be used for research purposes.

    Top Cities Through Time

    Years 100, 1000, 1500, 1800, 1900, 1950 data compiled from About.com

    http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa011201b.htm Original Source for About.com Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census by Tertius Chandler. 1987, St. David's University Press.

    Year 2000 and 2005 data compiled from United Nations Population Division for use with Understanding the Changing Planet.  The creative selection, coordination, data and selection is original to the author.  Only non-copyrightable facts were used. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/

    ArcGIS Online Map

    Presentation link: http://explorer.arcgis.com/?present=fa0861b505cf4868999d3e752265862b

    Map link: http://explorer.arcgis.com/?open=8d79ae2c79524a43ae8bc6b3366b1c44

    Urbanization of the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Earth Observatory

    http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7949

    Landsat Imagery

    Esri Understanding Our World website http://www.esri.com/landsat-imagery/index.html

    Authors: B. Duke, A. Palmer & R. Palmer

  • All data and maps in this lesson are to be used for educational purposes only. It is not to be used for research purposes.

    Authors: B. Duke, A. Palmer & R. Palmer

  • All data and maps in this lesson are to be used for educational purposes only. It is not to be used for research purposes.

    Earth Observatory http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/aral_sea.php 

    American University Case Study

    Authors: B. Duke, A. Palmer & R. Palmer

  • All data and maps in this lesson are to be used for educational purposes only. It is not to be used for research purposes.

    Landsat Imagery
    Bolivia Soy Production Deforestation Image

    NASA Earth Observatory - Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16274
    Honduras Shrimp Production Aquaculture Image

    NASA Earth Observatory - NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained courtesy of the University of Maryland’s Global Land Cover Facility: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17204

    Authors: B. Duke, A. Palmer & R. Palmer

  • Ancient Encyclopedia History. The Silk Road Illustration. http://www.ancient.eu.com/image/146/, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Bachelet, Pablo. October 17, 2007. Study: Migrants leave huge worldwide money trail. McClatchy. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2007/10/17/20589/study-migrants-leave-huge-worldwide.html, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Bloch, Matthew, Carter, Shan, and Gebeloff, Robert. April 7, 2009. Immigration and jobs: Where U.S. workers come from. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/04/07/us/20090407-immigration-occupation.html#view=all, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Bruner, Jon. 2011. Map: Where Americans are moving. Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2010/06/04/migration-moving-wealthy-interactive-counties-map.html?preload=39099, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    California Energy Commission. 2011. The Energy Story Chapter 8: Fossil fuels – coal, oil and natural gas. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Economic Research Service, 2011. Food Environment Atlas, http://www.ers.usda.gov/foodatlas/, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Fessenden, Ford, and Roberts, Sam. 2011. Then as now – New York’s shifting ethnic mosaic. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/01/23/nyregion/20110123-nyc-ethnic-neighborhoods-map.html, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    GOOD, Sahin, N., and Ozcan, S. 2009. Transparency: How far your produce travels. Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University. http://www.good.is/post/transparency-how-far-your-produce-travels/, Accessed September 30, 2011. 

     

    Hambouz, Annissa, and Ojalvo, Holly Epstein. 2011. One-way ticket? Exploring the Great Migration in literature and the Arts. The Learning Network. The New York Times. http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/03/31/one-way-ticket-exploring-the-great-migration-in-literature-and-the-arts/#more-60541, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Hossain, Farhana. 2007. Snapshot: Global migration. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/ref/world/20070622_CAPEVERDE_GRAPHIC.html#, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Immigration Policy Center, Unauthorized Immigrants Pay Taxes, Too, April 2011, http://immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/unauthorized-immigrants-pay-taxes-too, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 2010. The World Bank: Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/Factbook2011-Ebook.pdf, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 2010. The World Bank: Dilip Ratha on ‘Migration and remittances factbook 2011.’ http://vimeo.com/16626088, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    International Fund for Agricultural Development. 2007. Sending money home: Worldwide remittance flows to developing countries. http://www.ifad.org/remittances/maps/index.htm, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    International Networks Archives. 2003. Princeton Mapping Globalization Project. http://blogs.princeton.edu/itsacademic/2011/03/the_mapping_globalization_project.html, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Kaluza, P., Koelzsch, A., Gastner, M.T., Blasius, B. 2010. "The complex network of global cargo ship movements". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 7: 1093-1103 doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0495.

     

    Mangum, L. 2011. Immigration: Global hot spots. National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/news/images/2007/jun/05/immigration/, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Migration Policy Institute. 2011. Global remittances: Formal remittances inflow in 2010 by migrants’ origin countries*. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/remittances.cfm.

     

    Oliver, Lynne. 2011. Editor, The Food Timeline.

     

    Organic Linker, The Organic and Eco Directory. No date. Food miles calculator. http://www.organiclinker.com/food-miles.cfm, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Pew Social Trends Staff. 2008. Map: US migration flows. http://pewsocialtrends.org/2008/12/17/u-s-migration-flows/, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Richards, Mark. No date. From farm to fork. Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1917925_1923881,00.html, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    SASI Group , University of Sheffield and Mark Newman. 2006. International immigrants. http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map15_ver5.pdf, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    U.S. Census Bureau. 2005-2009 American Community Survey. http://factfinder.census.gov/Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    U.S. Census Bureau. Summary File 1 (SF 1) and Summary File 3 (SF 3). http://factfinder.census.gov/, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Walsh, Bryan. 2009. Getting real about the high price of cheap food. Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1917726,00.html, Accessed September 30, 2011.

     

    Wilson, Gretchen. 2008. Cocoa made sweet without child labor. Marketplace Morning Report. http://marketplace.publicradio.org/display/web/2008/02/14/cocoa_child_labor/, Accessed September 30, 2011.

  • Au, Vanessa (2009). Twitter Revolution. Flow, http://flowtv.org/2010/01/twitter-revolution-vanessa-au-university-of-washington/, Accessed August 7, 2011

    Blumberg AJ, Eckersley P (2009) On locational privacy, and how to avoid losing it forever. Electronic Frontier Foundation, http://www.eff.org/wp/locational-privacy, Accessed July 26, 2011

    Elmwood S, Leszczynski A (2011) Privacy, reconsidered: New representations, data practices, and the geoweb. Geoforum 42(1): 6-15

    Fletcher D (2010) Please rob me: the risks of online oversharing. Time Magazine, http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1964873,00.html, Accessed July 26, 2011

    GeoCommons (2011) Tweets mentioning #Egpyt #Jan25 #Tahrir http://geocommons.com/maps/74388, Accessed August 7, 2011

    GeoCommons (2011) Tweets That Mention Glee Oct 8-10 2010 http://geocommons.com/maps/89448, Accessed August 7, 2011

    Google (2009) Google Flu Trend: How does this work? http://www.google.org/flutrends/about/how.html, Accessed July 26, 2011

    Heussner, Ki Mae (2010) Celebrities' Photos, Videos May Reveal Location. ABC News/ Technology, http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/celebrity-stalking-online-photos-give-location/story?id=11162352, Accessed July 26, 2011

    Lawton, Tait (2010) China's Digital Divide - Differences in Urban and Rural Chinese Internet Users. East-West-Connect, http://www.east-west-connect.com/urban-vs-rural-chinese-internet-users-2010, Accessed August 7, 2011

    Lohr, Steve (2011) Online Mapping Shows Potential to Transform Relief Efforts. New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/28/business/28map.html?_r=4 Accessed August 7, 2011

    MobiThinking (2011) Global Mobile Statistics 2011. http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats, Accessed August 7, 2011

    Noula (2011) Cartographie De La Situation. http://www.noula.ht, Accessed August 7, 2011

    Open Signal Maps (2011) OpenSignalMaps http://opensignalmaps.com/, Accessed August 7, 2011

    Twitter (2011) About the Tweet Location Feature. https://support.twitter.com/groups/31-twitter-basics/topics/111-features/articles/78525-about-the-tweet-location-feature, Accessed July 26, 2011

    Ushahidi (2011) The 2010 Earthquake in Haiti. http://haiti.ushahidi.com/, Accessed August 7, 2011

  • Castells, M. (2000). The Rise of the Network Society. Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Devriendt, L., Derudder, B., & Witlox, F. (2008). Cyberplace and cyberspace: Two approaches to analyzing digital intercity linkages, Journal of Urban Technology, 15(2): 5-32.

    Dicken, P. (2011). Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy. 6th  Edition. London: Sage.

    Dyer, G., Serratos-Hernandez, J.A., Perales, H., Gepts, P., Pineyro-Nelson, A., Chavez, A., Salinas-Arreortua, N., Yunez-Naude, A., Taylor, J.E., & Alvarez-Vuylla, E. (2009). Dispersal of transgenes through maize seed systems in Mexico, PLos One, Open Access Journal, 4(5):1-9., Retrieved July 23 from http:www.ploone.org

    Lagendijk, A., & Cornford, J. (2000). Regional institutions and knowledge – tracking new forms of regional development policy, Geoforum, 31: 209-218.

    NSTApress. (2007). Genetically Modified Crops. Resources for Environmental Literacy. Environmental Literacy Council. National Science Teachers Association

    Pain, K. (2010). Cities and sustainability: Reflections on a decade of world development, GaWC Research Bulletin 354, Retrieved July 7 from http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb308.html.

    Sassen, S. (1991). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/galleries/middle_east/room_55_mesopotamia.aspx
    http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/waldexh.html
    http://www.redcross.org/www-files/Documents/International%20Services/Haiti/HaitiCholeraResponse.jpg
    http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/mapsbroadstreet.html
    http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/03/japan-earthquake-surpise/

  • National Institutes of Health Report. 2011. Future directions in health.